General thoracic surgery is the surgical discipline that treats surgical diseases of all chest organs  (with the exception of the heart).  Thoracic surgery is the surgery of the lung, esophagus and gastroesophageal junction, mediastinum, thymus, pleura, chest wall (ribs, sternum ...), diaphragm, pericardium ... .

It mainly deals with tumours of these organs (cancer and benign tumours). Thoracic surgery also encompasses the treatment of all functional problems of these organs (e.g. gastroesophageal reflux, achalasia, hiatal hernias, esophageal diverticulum, diaphragmatic paralysis, emphysema), surgery for  congenital malformations of the chest and lung transplantation surgery. 

Apart from lung transplants all other thoracic interventions are commonly performed in Luxembourg.